Anxiety Disorders


Anxiety Disorders

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Anxiety can be a normal and adaptation response to threats that prepare the individual for “flight or fight”. Someone who is anxious about everything can be said to experience a total anxiety disorder. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a disorder condition that is characterized by excessive and irrational anxiety and worry, sometimes even unrealistic about various events in daily life. This condition is experienced for most of the day, lasting for at least 6 months. Anxiety that is felt is difficult to control and is associated with somatic symptoms such as muscle tension, irritability, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety, causing clear suffering and significant disturbances in social and work functions (Sadock, 1997).

GAD is characterized by excessive anxiety and excessive worry about the events of daily life without any apparent reason to worry. This anxiety can not be controlled so that it can cause stress and disrupt daily activities, work and social life (Sadock, 1997).

Anxiety is one of the most common emotional disorders, which is characterized by several emotional and physical symptoms such as fear, panic, nightmares, obsessive thoughts uncontrolled, disturbed continuously with traumatic experiences, sleep disorders, muscle tension, increased heart rate, sweating cold, and indigestion.

Factors that influence one’s anxiety include biological factors and psychosocial factors:

1. Biological Factors

The therapeutic efficacy of the drugs benzodiazepines and azaspiron (buspiron) is focused on the neurotransmitter GABA and serotonin systems. Benzodiazepines are known to reduce anxiety, whereas flumazenil (benzodiazepine antagonist receptors) can trigger anxiety. Although there is no data to prove that benzodiazepine receptors in patients with generalized anxiety disorder are abnormal, some researchers say that the highest concentration of benzodiazepine receptors is in the occipital lobe. Other brain areas that are suspected of playing a role in the occurrence of overall anxiety disorders are the basal ganglia, limbic system, and frontal lobe cortex.

Because buspiron is an agonist against serotonin receptors, there is a hypothesis that a regulation of the serotonergic system occurs in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

Other neurotransmitters that are still the subject of research in overall anxiety disorders are norepinephrine, glutamate, and the cholecystokinin system.

2. Psychosocial Factors

Psychosocial factors that lead to the development of overall anxiety disorders are cognitive-behavior and psychoanalytic. Based on cognitive behavior, patients with total anxiety disorder respond to a threat less precisely and correctly. This inaccuracy results from selective attention to a negative thing in the environment by distorting information processing and by looking too negative at his ability to deal with a problem.

Although there are no specific laboratory tests to diagnose anxiety disorders, various non-laboratory tests can be done to detect the presence or absence of a problem. Overall anxiety disorders, according to DSM-IV-TR, are characterized by frequent patterns, constant worry and anxiety that do not match the impact of events or circumstances that are the focus of worry. The difference between overall anxiety disorder and normal anxiety is emphasized in criteria that use excessive and difficult words to control; and symptoms that cause a significant decrease.

General description of this disease is a concern that is not comparable with the real stressor in life. Anxiety disorders themselves are divided into 2 namely continuous anxiety disorders with episodics. Comprehensive anxiety disorder is a form of continuous anxiety.

Symptoms that occur must indicate anxiety as a primary symptom that lasts almost every day for several weeks to several months, while other complaints include anxiety such as worrying about bad luck, feeling like on the edge, difficult to concentrate. In addition there is also motor tension, such as anxiety, headaches, trembling, can not relax. Autonomic overactivity is also found for example the presence of a head feels light, sweating, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, stomach complaints, dizziness, dry mouth.


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